Female Genital Mutilation

What is FGM

The World Health Organisation (WHO) states that Female Genital Mutilation (FGM):

“Comprises of all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons”

(WHO Fact Sheet No.241(February 2014))

FGM is also known as Female Circumcision (FC) and Female Genital Cutting (FGC). The reason for these alternative definitions is that it is better received in the communities that practice it, who do not see themselves as engaging in mutilation.

FGM is included with the revised (2013) government definition of Domestic Violence and Abuse.

Female Genital Mutilation Types

  1. Clitoridectomy is the partial or total removal of the clitoris and, in rare cases, the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris);
  2. Excision which is the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (the labia are the ‘lips’ that surround the vagina);

Type 1 and 2 account for 75% of all worldwide procedures;

3. Infibulation which is the narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a  covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and repositioning the inner, and sometimes outer labia, with or without removal of the clitoris

Type 3 accounts for 25% of all worldwide procedures and is the most severe form of FGM;

4. All other types of harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area.

Useful Contacts

Emotional Health and Wellbeing Service for Young People affected by FGM AFRUCA Centre for African Children and Families:

Contact Sarah Malik

Phoenix Mill

20 Piercy Street



M4 7HY

Tel: 0161 205 9274

Fax: 0161 205 2156

Opening times:

Monday – Friday: 10am – 5pm

AFRUCA – Africans Unite Against Child Abuse

Tel: 0161 953 4711/ 4712



Foundation for Women’s Research and Development (FORWARD)

Tel: 0208 960 4000


Saheli Asian Women’s Refuge

Tel: 0161 945 4187



The NSPCC 24hour helpline to protect children and young people affected by FGM

Tel: 0800 028 3550

Women’s DV Helpline – Gt Manchester

Tel: 0161 636 7525

Directory of local services see www.endthefear.co.uk

NESTAC - Drop in groups across Greater Manchester for girls and women affected by FGM Tel: 01706 868993 Mob: 07862 279289 Email: peggy@nestac.org